Head and Neck Cancer is an online hub that provides useful and important information about advanced stages of head and neck cancer to patients. We offer free, credible, and comprehensive information on Head and Neck Cancer prevention and treatment. Head and Neck Cancer believes in providing exact, useful information about the stages of Head and Neck Cancer along with strategies for prevention and improvement.
Most of the head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, which arise from flat squamous cells. These squamous cells form a thin layer of tissue on the surface of the structures in the head and neck. From this website, you will learn how Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) occurs and how it can be prevented.
What is Head and Neck Cancer (HNC)? (1,2)
The broad term used to describe tumors in the region around throat, larynx, nose, sinuses, and mouth. Most of the head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, which arise from flat squamous cells. These squamous cells form the thin layer of tissue on the surface of the structures in the head and neck.
If the cancer is found only in the squamous layer of cells, it is called carcinoma in situ.
If the cancer grows beyond the squamous cell layer, then it is called invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Asian countries like India are a high-risk country with oral squamous cell carcinoma being the most common cancer in men and the fourth most common cancer in women.
How does Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) occur? (3)
HNC is often caused by:
- Tobacco use which includes cigar, pipe or cigarette smoking
- Excessive consumption of alcohol
- Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection
Other contributing factors can be overexposure of lips to sun, UV light or old age.
How can we prevent Head and Neck Cancer? (3)
Avoiding tobacco products and avoiding consumption of alcohol can help prevent risk of HNC.
People who smoke need to undergo regular screening and avoid smoking.
Regular exercise and a healthy diet are protective factors to avoid cancer.
symptoms of Head and Neck Cancer: (4)
The symptoms of head and neck cancers may include a lump or a sore that does not heal or go away, difficulty in swallowing, and a change or hoarseness of the voice. Other signs may include:
- Oral cavity: A white or red patch on the gums, the tongue, or the lining of the mouth; a swelling of the jaw that causes dentures to fit poorly or become uncomfortable; and unusual bleeding or pain in the mouth.
- Pharynx: Trouble breathing or speaking; pain when swallowing; pain in the neck or the throat that does not go away; frequent headaches, pain, or ringing in the ears; or trouble hearing.
- Larynx: Pain when swallowing or ear pain.
- Paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity: Sinuses that are blocked and do not clear; chronic sinus
infections that do not respond to treatment with antibiotics; bleeding through the nose; frequent headaches, swelling or other trouble with the eyes; pain in the upper teeth; or problems with dentures.
- Salivary glands: Swelling under the chin or around the jawbone, numbness or paralysis of the muscles in the face, or pain in the face, the chin, or the neck that does not go away.
About Head and neck cancer
Know more about tumours in the region around throat, larynx, nose, sinuses, and mouth
Stages of HNC
The most commonly used system to classify cancer into stages is the TNM cancer staging
Diagnosis & Treatment
Know about the diagnostic tests & treatment options available for Head and Neck Cancer
Care beyond pills: Managing side effects, diet, counselling and managing finances